Neurological Terms beginning with M

Glossary of neurological terms
Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.
M1 receptors search for term

receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine implicated in recent research as having an important role in modulating the plaques and tangles characteristic of Alzheimer’s.

MCI search for term

Mild cognitive impairment is a condition where significant cognitive impairment exists which nevertheless doesn't affect daily functioning, whereas age-related cognitive impairment is relatively slight, non-important, cognitive impairment. MCI is often a precursor of Alzheimer's disease.

MCI-A search for term

mild cognitive impairment, amnesic subtype; patients with this disorder show memory impairments but not other cognitive impairments (e.g., in reasoning).

MCI-MCD search for term

mild cognitive impairment, multiple cognitive domain subtype or non-amnestic MCI; patients with this disorder show mild impairments in cognitive tasks such as judgment or language, and mild or no memory loss.

memantine search for term

is in a different class than other approved Alzheimer's drugs, which are all cholinesterase inhibitors; memantine, marketed as Namenda, is an NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist.

memapsin 2 search for term

an enzyme responsible for producing beta-amyloid

methionine search for term

is one of the essential amino acids that we require from food. Broken down, it produces homocysteine; B-vitamins are required to convert homocysteine back to methionine. High levels of methionine can be found in sesame seeds, Brazil nuts, fish, meats, and dairy products. Most fruits and vegetables contain very little -- spinach, potatoes, and boiled corn are some of the exceptions. Methionine is also found in beta-amyloid, and has been suggested as being the source of the toxic free radicals produced by amyloid-beta peptides.

mGluR5 search for term

a glutamate receptor, an excess of which has been implicated in Fragile X syndrome. Fragile X, the leading cause of mental retardation, is characterized by loss of the FMR1 gene, which encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP and mGluR5 keep each other in check; without FMRP, mGluR5 increase excessively.

micro-molecular aggregates search for term

tiny clumps made up of several amyloid beta molecules; implicated in Alzheimer's development

microglia search for term

brain cells that remove debris left by dead and dying neurons and glia.

mitochondrial dysfunction search for term

mitochondria have been termed the cell's "power plants"; dysfunction in them contributes to a wide range of human diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, ischaemic stroke and heart attack, diabetes and the cumulative degeneration associated with ageing. Mitochondrial dysfunction is well-documented in Alzheimer's; it's thought that by decreasing the supply of ATP, synapses and synaptic function might be lost.

mitogen search for term

something that induces mitosis — a form of cell division — in cells

motor neurons search for term

neurons that connect with muscles and direct movements

mRNA search for term

messenger RNA carries the genetic message out of the nucleus. It contains four different nucleic acids arranged in various sequences and the message is contained in the precise sequence.

MW01-5-188WH search for term

an orally administered compound specifically targeted to suppress brain cell inflammation and neuron loss associated with Alzheimer's disease

myelin search for term

the sheathing that insulates axons and facilitates speedy communication among neurons.

myocyte enhancer factor 2 search for term

a protein that turns on and off genes that control dendritic remodeling, that is the growth and pruning of neurons. The MEF2 pathway could play a role in autism and other neurodevelopmental diseases.