tai chi

Tai Chi improves blood flow in young adults

A year-long study involving young adults has compared those who engaged in either tai chi or brisk walking or no exercise. Those who practiced tai chi had a significantly higher number of CD 34+ cells compared with those in the other groups. CD 34+ cells are markers for blood stem cells involved in cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation. The findings suggest tai chi may prompt vasodilation and increase blood flow.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-05/ctco-ctc052814.php

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Tai Chi improves cognition and brain size in older adults

August, 2012

A comparison of the effects of regular sessions of tai chi, walking, and social discussion, has found tai chi was associated with the biggest gains in brain volume and improved cognition.

The study involved 120 healthy older adults (60-79) from Shanghai, who were randomly assigned to one of four groups: one that participated in three sessions of tai chi every week for 40 weeks; another that instead had ‘social interaction’ sessions (‘lively discussions’); another in which participants engaged in walking around a track; and a non-intervention group included as a control. Brain scans were taken before and after the 40-week intervention, and cognitive testing took place at 20 weeks as well as these times.

Compared to those who received no intervention, both those who participated in tai chi, and those who participated in the social sessions, showed significant increases in brain volume and on some cognitive measures. However, the tai chi group showed improvement on more cognitive tests than the social group (on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, the Trailmaking Tests, delayed recognition on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and verbal fluency for animals vs verbal fluency and positive trends only on Trails A and the Auditory test).

Surprisingly, there were no such significant effects from the walking intervention, which involved 30 minutes of brisk walking around a 400m circular track, sandwiched by 10 minutes of warm-up and 10 minutes cool-down exercises. This took place in the same park as the tai chi sessions (which similarly included 20 minutes of warm-up exercises, 20 minutes of tai chi, and 10 minutes of cool-down exercises).

This finding is inconsistent with other research, but the answer seems to lie in individual differences — specifically, speed of walking. Faster walkers showed significantly better performance on the Stroop test, and on delayed recall and recognition on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test. It should be noted that, unlike some studies in which participants were encouraged to reach heart-rate targets, participants in this study were simply told to walk at their own speed. This finding, then, would seem to support the view that brisk walking is needed to reap good health and cognitive benefits (which shouldn’t put anyone off — anything is better than nothing! and speed is likely to come with practice, if that’s your aim).

It should also be noted that this population has generally high rates of walking. It is likely, then, that the additional walking in these sessions did not add a great deal to their existing behavior.

There is a caveat to the strongly positive effects of tai chi: this group showed lower cognitive performance at baseline. This was because the group randomly received more individuals with very low scores (8 compared with 5 in the other groups).

The study is, of course, quite a small one, and a larger study is required to confirm these results.

One final note: the relative differences in enjoyment were not explicitly investigated, but the researchers did note that the social group, who initially were given topics to discuss in their hour-long sessions, then decided to select and organize their own discussions, and have continued to do so for two years following the end of the study. It would have been nice if the researchers had re-tested participants at that point.

Reference: 

Mortimer, J.A. et al. 2012. Changes in Brain Volume and Cognition in a Randomized Trial of Exercise and Social Interaction in a Community-Based Sample of Non-Demented Chinese Elders. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 30 (4), 757-766.
Full text available at http://health.usf.edu/nocms/publicaffairs/now/pdfs/JAD_Mortimer_30%28201...

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Some cancer survivors can't shake foggy brain

July, 2011

For a minority of cancer survivors, cognitive problems will persist for years. Help with sleeping problems, and t’ai chi for stress release, may be beneficial.

A recent study of cancer survivors has found that many survivors still suffer moderate to severe problems with pain, fatigue, sleep, memory and concentration three to five years after treatment has ended.

The study included 248 survivors of breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancer. The survivors were primarily female and white, and most were more than five years post-diagnosis. Cognitive difficulties were reported by 13%. The other most common symptoms were fatigue (16%), disturbed sleep (15%), and pain (13%). Two assessments were made, one month apart. The similar results indicate these symptoms tend to be chronic.

The researchers pointed to the need for education programs to help survivors transition from treatment to life as a cancer survivor, and the need for clinicians and researchers to develop better ways to address sleep problems, fatigue and lasting difficulties with memory and concentration.

One activity that could be part of a post-treatment program is t'ai chi.  A recent pilot study involving 23 women with a history of chemotherapy has found better cognitive and physical functioning after 10 weeks participating in a 60-minute t’ai chi class twice a week. Before and after the intervention, participants completed tests of memory, executive functioning, language, and attention, as well as tests of balance and self-report questionnaires of neuropsychological complaints, stress and mood, and fatigue.

However, though I’m a big fan of t’ai chi, I do have to note that without a control group, allowing the passing of time and the effects of any sort of group activity to be taken into account, it’s hard to draw any real conclusions from this.

Still, some support for this finding can be found in a recent meta-analysis of research investigating the benefits of t'ai chi for any improvement of medical conditions or clinical symptoms. This review found that the only clear evidence is in relation to fall prevention and improving psychological health. So, only middling support for t'ai chi, but the affirmation of its benefit for psychological health does support the potential value of this meditational practice for cancer survivors.

Reference: 

The findings of the first study were presented June 4 at the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting in Chicago.

[2320] Reid-Arndt, S. A., Matsuda S., & Cox C. R.
(Submitted).  Tai Chi effects on neuropsychological, emotional, and physical functioning following cancer treatment: A pilot study.
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. In Press, Corrected Proof,

[2319] Lee, M S., & Ernst E.
(2011).  Systematic reviews of t'ai chi: an overview.
British Journal of Sports Medicine.

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