A theory that changes in fat metabolism in the membranes of nerve cells play a role in Alzheimer's has been supported in a recent study. The study found significantly higher levels of ceramide and cholesterol in the middle frontal gyrus of Alzheimer's patients. The researchers suggest that alterations in fats (especially cholesterol and ceramide) may contribute to a "neurodegenerative cascade" that destroys neurons in Alzheimer's, and that the accumulation of ceramide and cholesterol is triggered by the oxidative stress brought on by the presence of the toxic beta amyloid peptide. The study also suggests a reason for why antioxidants such as vitamin E might delay the onset of Alzheimer's: treatment with Vitamin E reduced the levels of ceramide and cholesterol, resulting in "a significant decrease in the number of neurons killed by the beta amyloid and oxidative stress.
Cutler, R.G., Kelly, J., Storie, K., Pedersen, W.A., Tammara, A., Hatanpaa, K., Troncoso, J.C. & Mattson, M.P. 2004. Involvement of oxidative stress-induced abnormalities in ceramide and cholesterol metabolism in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. PNAS, 101, 2070-5.