A small Japanese study has found evidence that those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) show a specific decline in their ability to recognize faces, and this is accompanied by changes in the way they scan faces.
The study involved 18 patients with aMCI and 18 age-matched healthy controls. Participants were tested on their ability to perceive and remember images of faces and houses.
Those with aMCI showed poorer memory for faces compared to their memory for houses, while control participants showed no difference between the two. Moreover, compared with controls, those with aMCI spent less time looking at the eyes in the image, while increasing the time they spent looking at the mouths of faces.
In general, people have an excellent memory for faces compared to other visual stimuli, and the eyes are particularly useful in helping us remember the face. The researchers suggest that damage to the brain region known as the fusiform face area (FFA) is responsible for the abnormal processing of faces. It is worth noting that a case study of a patient with acquired prosopagnosia revealed the same pattern of fixating on the mouth rather than the eyes.
The finding is consistent with several other studies showing impaired face processing in those with aMCI, but there is some controversy about that conclusion.
Full text available at https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-14585-5
 . Face-specific memory deficits and changes in eye scanning patterns among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2017 ;7(1):14344. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-14585-5