Latest Research News

An analysis of the anatomical connectivity in the brains of 15 people with Alzheimer's disease, 68 with mild cognitive impairment and 28 healthy older individuals, has found several measures showed disease effects:

The first detailed characterization of the molecular structures of amyloid-beta fibrils that develop in the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease suggests that different molecular structures of amyloid-beta fibrils may distinguish the brains of Alzheimer's patients with different clinical histories and degrees of brain damage.

A study involving mice lacking a master clock gene called Bmal1 has found that as the mice aged, their brains showed patterns of damage similar to those seen in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Many of the injuries seemed to be caused by free radicals.

A new study involving 96 older adults initially free of dementia at the time of enrollment, of whom 12 subsequently developed mild Alzheimer’s, has clarified three fundamental issues about Alzheimer's: where it starts, why it starts there, and how it spreads.

Analysis of 5715 cases from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) database has found that nearly 80% of more than 4600 Alzheimer's disease patients showed some degree of vascular pathology, compared with 67% of the controls, and 66% in the Parkinson's group. The link was especially strong for younger patients with Alzheimer’s.

The jugular venous reflux (JVR) occurs when the pressure gradient reverses the direction of blood flow in the veins, causing blood to leak backwards into the brain. A small pilot study has found an association between JVR and

The

Following on from the evidence that Alzheimer’s brains show higher levels of metals such as iron, copper, and zinc, a mouse study has found that amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s-like brains with significant neurodegeneration have about 25% more copper than those with little neurodegeneration. This is consistent with a human study showing very high levels of copper in Alzheimer’s plaques.

Iron, though doubled in Alzheimer’s brains compared to controls, was not significantly different as a function of neurodegeneration, and zinc showed very little difference.

An Italian study has found that a significant percentage of Alzheimer’s patients suffer from Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. This respiratory disorder, which causes people to temporarily stop breathing during their sleep, affects cerebral blood flow, promoting cognitive decline. The finding adds to evidence that detecting and treating OSA early is important for preventing cognitive decline and dementia.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-10/ip-apn100813.php

Data from 70 older adults (average age 76) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging has found that those who reported poorer sleep (shorter sleep duration and lower sleep quality) showed a greater buildup of amyloid-beta plaques.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-10/tjnj-lsa101813.php

A new discovery helps explain why the “Alzheimer’s gene” ApoE4 is such a risk factor. It appears that ApoE4 causes a dramatic reduction in SirT1, an "anti-aging protein" that is targeted by resveratrol (present in red wine).

Analyses of cerebrospinal fluid from 15 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 21 control subjects, plus brain tissue from some of them, has found that those with Alzheimer’s had lower levels of a particular molecule involved in resolving inflammation. These ‘specialized pro-resolving mediators’ regulate the tidying up of the damage done by inflammation and the release of growth factors that stimulate tissue repair.

Tau protein stabilizes structures that transport supplies from the center of the cell to the extremities, but sometimes some tau is not bound to these microtubules and instead clumps together into

A study involving genetically engineered fruit flies adds to our understanding of why sleep and bioclock disruptions are common in those with Alzheimer's disease. People with Alzheimer's often have poor biological rhythms — periods of sleep become shorter and more fragmented, resulting in periods of wakefulness at night and snoozing during the day. It has been thought that Alzheimer’s destroys the biological clock, but this new study indicates that the clock is still working — however, it’s being ignored by other parts of the brain.

A new study shows that a combination of inflammation and hypoxia activates microglia in a way that persistently weakens the connection between neurons, contributing to brain damage in conditions such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-03/uobc-scb031214.php

Brain scans of 10 persons with Down syndrome but no dementia, 10 persons with Down syndrome and dementia, and 10 healthy controls, have revealed a linear correlation between cognitive ability and compromised

A new function has been found for the

New research helps explain the role of amyloid-beta plaques in the development of Alzheimer's, by finding that the prion protein known to bind strongly to small aggregates of amyloid-beta peptides, also attaches to large fibrillar clumps of amyloid-beta.

Creating amyloid-beta requires the convergence of a protein called

A Finnish study involving moderately obese adult patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has found that even a modest weight loss (5%) can improve OSA, if occurring in the early stages of OSA.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/uoef-emw021114.php

Data from a survey of 20,000 people across the UK has found that people who cycle, walk, or take public transport to work had a lower risk of being overweight than those who drove or took a taxi. People who walked to work were 40% less likely to have diabetes than those who drove and 17% less likely to have high blood pressure. Cyclists were around half as likely to have diabetes as drivers.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-08/icl-wtw080513.php

A Swedish study of some 4,000 60-year-olds has found that regular “non-exercise” physical activity such as gardening or DIY significantly reduced risk of heart attack or stroke, with those who were most active on a daily basis having a 27% lower risk of a heart attack or stroke and a 30% reduced risk of death from all causes. This was so regardless of how much regular formal exercise was taken.

An 11-week trial involving 54 young, healthy men and women engaging in an endurance training program, has found that markers for the production of new muscle mitochondria only increased in the group not taking vitamin C and E supplements. It’s possible that high doses of vitamins C and E act as antioxidants and take away some of the oxidative stress needed to develop muscular endurance.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/w-vca013014.php

A mouse study has found that long-term physical activity increased levels of two proteins in the mitochondria of their heart. It’s thought this might help explain why regular exercise improves cardiovascular health.

Data from 133,479 women in the California Teachers Study has found that those who reported doing moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking) in the three years before enrolling in the study were 20% less likely to suffer a stroke than women who reported no activity. More strenuous activity didn’t further reduce risk.

It’s well established that performing both cardio- and resistance training in the same session is decidedly better than doing them separately, but does the order matter?

A study involving men aged 18-40, who performed either supervised cardio- immediately followed by strength training, or vice versa, for 24 weeks (2-3 combined cardio- and resistance sessions per week), has found that over the 6 months, the order didn’t matter. However, the group starting with cardio did show slower recovery in the beginning.

A year-long study involving 424 sedentary, mobility-limited seniors aged 70-89, has found that variants in a specific gene (the ACE I/D gene) affect seniors’ ability to benefit from exercise. Physical activity intervention led to greater improvements in walking speed among ID and DD genotype carriers (29.9% and 13.7% respectively), but among II genotype carriers, health education alone led to more improvements in walking speed than physical activity intervention (20% vs. 18.5%).

Data from the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, involving 3,659 individuals (men aged 55+; women 65+), has found that the more muscle mass older adults have, the less likely they are to die prematurely. The findings add to the growing evidence that overall body composition — and not the widely used body mass index (BMI) — is a better predictor of mortality.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-03/uoc--oab031314.php

Brain scans have revealed that those who regularly practiced yoga had larger brain volume in the

A four-year study involving 1,502 healthy older adults (50+) has found that the frequency of negative interactions with family members (not partners or children) and friends was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension in women (but not in men). Each increase in the total average negative social interaction score was associated with a 38% increased chance of developing hypertension. Younger older women (51-64) were more affected than those 65 or older.

A year-long study involving young adults has compared those who engaged in either tai chi or brisk walking or no exercise. Those who practiced tai chi had a significantly higher number of CD 34+ cells compared with those in the other groups. CD 34+ cells are markers for blood stem cells involved in cell self-renewal, differentiation and proliferation. The findings suggest tai chi may prompt vasodilation and increase blood flow.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-05/ctco-ctc052814.php

Data from the very large U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), involving 23,168 people, has found a significant association between low dietary fiber intake and risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity.

Dietary fiber intake was also consistently below recommended intake levels: 38g per day for men aged 19-50 years, 30g per day for men 50 and over, 25g for women aged 19-50 years, and 21g per day for women over 50. Mean dietary fiber intake was only 16.2g per day across all groups.

A study involving 12 rhesus macaques, of whom some were given access to alcohol, has found that those who drank moderately showed enhanced responses to a smallpox vaccine (compared with the control group of monkeys who drank sugar water), indicating a bolstered immune system, while heavy drinkers showed greatly diminished vaccine responses.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-12/ohs-sma121713.php

A mouse study suggests that resveratrol—a compound abundant in red wine—may moderate some of a high-fat diet’s negative effects on the immune system.

http://www.futurity.org/can-resveratrol-balance-fatty-diet/

A study involving 74 older adults (70+), of whom 3 had mild dementia, 33 were cognitively normal and 38 had mild cognitive impairment, has found that high levels of "good" cholesterol and low levels of "bad" cholesterol correlated with lower levels of the amyloid-beta plaques in the brain (a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease).

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-12/uoc--hga122613.php

A review of research from 1957 to the present has concluded that a whole diet approach, and specifically Mediterranean-style diets, has more evidence for reducing cardiovascular risk than strategies that focus exclusively on reduced dietary fat.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/ehs-ssw020514.php

A Swedish study has found that those who ate poor breakfasts as year 9 students had a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome 27 years later, compared with those who ate more substantial breakfasts.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-01/uu-pbi012914.php

A British study analyzing data from 7,011 adults who participated in two Health and Lifestyle Surveys, has found that a new method of measuring obesity, A Body Shape Index (ABSI), is a more effective predictor of mortality than Body Mass Index (BMI). You can find an online calculator at http://www-ce.ccny.cuny.edu/nir/sw/absi-calculator.html.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/ccon-nss022414.php

A study involving 39 young adult men and women of normal weight, who ate 750 extra calories in the form of muffins every day for seven weeks, found that those whose muffins were made with palm oil built significantly more fat and less muscle than those whose muffins were made with sunflower oil. Moreover, the palm oil group developed the fat in more dangerous places  — in the liver and abdomen. The groups gained the same amount of weight.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/uu-afa022414.php

A study in which 23 healthy volunteers ate half a kilo of strawberries every day for a month has found that their levels of bad cholesterol and triglycerides reduced significantly.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/f-sf-slc022514.php

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