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A brain-imaging study shows adolescents who abuse alcohol and marijuana show poorer white-matter integrity, with alcohol associated with continuing damage to wiring in prefrontal regions.

Chronic use of alcohol and marijuana during youth has been associated with poorer neural and cognitive function, which appears to continue into adulthood. A new study looking specifically at white-matter changes provides more support for the idea that adolescent brains may be at particular risk from the damage that substance abuse can bring. The brain-imaging study compared 41 adolescents (aged...

A large study of older adults suggests that being able to bite into a hard food such as an apple puts you in a better state to fight cognitive decline and dementia.

Previous research has pointed to an association between not having teeth and a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia. One reason might have to do with inflammation — inflammation is a well-established risk factor, and at least one study has linked gum disease to a higher dementia risk. Or it might have to do with the simple mechanical act of chewing, reducing blood flow to the brain...
January, 2013

A meta-analysis has concluded that low-level exposure to organophosphates has a small-to-moderate negative effect on cognitive function.

Organophosphate pesticides are the most widely used insecticides in the world; they are also (according to WHO), one of the most hazardous pesticides to vertebrate animals. While the toxic effects of high levels of organophosphates are well established, the effects of long-term low-level exposure are still controversial. A meta-analysis involving 14 studies and more than 1,600 participants,...
January, 2013

The second large-scale study investigating whether gingko biloba helps prevent Alzheimer’s has confirmed that it doesn’t.

Sad to say, another large study has given the thumbs down to ginkgo biloba preventing Alzheimer’s disease. The randomized, double-blind trial took place over five years, involving 2854 older adults (70+) who had presented to their primary care physician with memory complaints. Half were given a twice-daily dose of 120 mg standardised ginkgo biloba extract and half a placebo. After five...
January, 2013

The most common cognitive test used in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s treatments has been shown to have significant flaws that underestimate cognitive change.

New research suggests that reliance on the standard test Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale—Cognitive Behavior Section (ADAS-Cog) to measure cognitive changes in Alzheimer’s patients is a bad idea. The test is the most widely used measure of cognitive performance in clinical trials. Using a sophisticated method of analysis ("Rasch analysis"), analysis of ADAS-Cog data from...
January, 2013

A study finds early semantic problems in those with MCI, correlating with a reduced capacity to carry out everyday tasks.

A small study shows how those on the road to Alzheimer’s show early semantic problems long before memory problems arise, and that such problems can affect daily life. The study compared 25 patients with amnestic MCI, 27 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's and 70 cognitively fit older adults (aged 55-90), on a non-verbal task involving size differences (for example, “What is...
January, 2013

A study that attempts to separate the effects of social isolation from subjective feelings of loneliness concludes that feelings of loneliness have a greater effect on dementia risk.

There's quite a bit of evidence now that socializing — having frequent contact with others — helps protect against cognitive impairment in old age. We also know that depression is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. There have been hints that loneliness might also be a risk factor. But here’s the question: is it being alone, or feeling lonely, that is the...
January, 2013

A large study suggests that even a few drinks a week can negatively affect the developing fetus, but only if the woman has specific gene variants.

It’s always difficult in human studies to disentangle the effects of lifestyle factors. Alcohol is a case in point, and in particular the vexed question of whether any alcohol is safe during pregnancy. A new study, however, has avoided the complication of co-occurring lifestyle and environment factors by looking directly at genetic variants. This study, believed to be the first substantial...
December, 2012

A mouse study demonstrates that prolonged social isolation can lead to a decrease in myelin, an effect implicated in a number of disorders, including age-related cognitive decline.

Problems with myelin — demyelination (seen most dramatically in MS, but also in other forms of neurodegeneration, including normal aging and depression); failure to develop sufficient myelin (in children and adolescents) — are increasingly being implicated in a wide range of disorders. A new animal study adds to that evidence by showing that social isolation brings about both...
December, 2012

A small study involving patients with TBI has found that the best learning strategies are ones that call on the self-schema rather than episodic memory, and the best involves self-imagination.

Sometime ago, I reported on a study showing that older adults could improve their memory for a future task (remembering to regularly test their blood sugar) by picturing themselves going through the process. Imagination has been shown to be a useful strategy in improving memory (and also motor skills). A new study extends and confirms previous findings, by testing free recall and comparing self-...
December, 2012
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Recent posts at Mynd

A study involving 97 healthy older adults (65-89) has found that those with the “Alzheimer’s gene” (APOe4) who didn’t...

An Indian study involving 648 dementia patients, of whom 391 were bilingual, has found that, overall, bilingual patients developed dementia 4.5...

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A study involving 254 people with dementia living at home has found that 99% of people with dementia and 97% of their caregivers had one or more...

A new U.S. study suggests that Alzheimer's disease and other dementias are markedly under-reported on death certificates and medical records....

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11 new genetic susceptibility factors for Alzheimer’s identified

The largest international study ever conducted on Alzheimer's...

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A gene linked to Alzheimer's has been linked to brain changes in childhood. This gene, SORL1, has two connections to Alzheimer’s: it...

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Analysis of 700 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative has revealed a genetic mutation (rs4728029) that’s associated...

Analysis of brain scans and cognitive scores of 64 older adults from the NIA's Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (average age 76) has found...