GRB-associated binding protein 2 - a protein over-expressed in neurons containing tangles.
is a neuropeptide that has been implicated in Alzheimer's, as well as depression and eating disorders. Considerably more than usual is produced in the early stages of Alzheimer’s, possibly as a response to the deterioration of brain cells. While this might help initially, as the disease progresses, the overexpression of galanin may become its own problem, contributing to cognitive decline.
a cholinesterase inhibitor, marketed as Reminyl
- gamma-aminobutyric acid
an amino acid synthesized from glutamate, it's the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, that is, one that dampens neuronal activity. It appears to dwindle in old age.
is one of the two secretases implicated in plaque formation. Gamma-secretase makes the final cut in the APP, and it does so within the cell membrane, using the thickness of the membrane as a guide for where to cut. Membranes expand or contract depending on the lipid content of the cell, and so, therefore, does the length of the cut product. When the cleavage goes wrong, plaques result. Gamma-secretase is divided into several subunits, which have recently been discovered to act separately on different tissues (see CD147).
- gene expression
typically, a the transcription of a gene’s DNA sequence produces a messenger RNA molecule, which guides the synthesis of a specific protein. The encoded protein carries out the gene's function.
- gene therapy
a technique for correcting defective genes; in Alzheimer's research this is generally achieved through surgical placement of genetically modified tissue directly into the brain. see http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genetherapy.... for more information on gene therapy
- genetically engineered mice
mice that are genetically engineered to develop an Alzheimer's-like disease by the introduction of transgenes. Mice ordinarily do not develop symptoms of the disease. see http://www.mni.mcgill.ca/nm/1999f/en/transgenes.html for a description of how this achieved
support cells in the brain; There are about ten times as many glial cells as neurons in the brain. Little attention has been paid to them, but now researchers are beginning to think they are more important than realized. The name is derived from the Latin word for 'glue'. The most common glia are astrocytes; other glia in the brain are oligodendroglia.
an amino acid, it's the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter in the adult brain
- grey matter
brain tissue is divided into two types: grey matter and white matter. Grey matter is made up of the cell bodies of nerve cells. The volume of grey matter tissue is a measure of the density of brain cells in a particular region.
Glossary of neurological terms
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