Aging

Latest news

  • A large long-running study found that stressful life experiences (but not traumatic events) during middle-age were associated with greater memory decline in later life — but only for women.
  • A large long-running study found that middle-aged adults with higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol had poorer cognition than those with average cortisol levels, and this was also associated with greater brain atrophy.
  • A study found that older adults (65-95) who responded to stressful events with more negative emotions showed greater fluctuations in cognitive performance.

Stressors in middle age linked to cognitive decline in older women

Data from some 900 older adults has linked stressful life experiences among middle-aged women, but not men, to greater memory decline in later life.

  • A large study indicates that visual impairment can play a role in age-related cognitive decline.

A study involving more than 2,500 older adults (65+) found that the rate of worsening vision was associated with the rate of cognitive decline. More importantly, vision has a stronger influence on cognition than the reverse.

  • A very large Taiwanese study found that adults with hearing loss had a higher dementia risk, and this was particularly so for those aged 45-64.
  • A very large Japanese study found that a dramatically greater proportion of older adults (65+) with hearing loss reported memory loss, compared to much fewer of those without hearing loss.
  • A very large study found that older adults (50+) who used hearing aids for hearing loss showed better performance on tests of working memory and attention compared with those who didn't use hearing aids for their hearing loss.
  • A large long-running study found that, while hearing impairment was associated with accelerated cognitive decline in older adults (mean age 73.5), the impact might be lessened by higher education.
  • A very large 8-year study found that hearing loss was associated with higher risk of subjective cognitive decline in older men (62+).
  • A very small study suggests that cognitive problems in some older adults may derive directly from hearing impairments, and may be fixed by addressing this.
  • A large, long-running study found that eating a healthy diet was associated with a lower risk of acquired hearing loss in women.

Hearing loss linked to increased dementia risk

  • A very large Canadian study found that older adults with chronic insomnia performed significantly worse on cognitive tests.
  • A small study links older adults' increasing difficulties with consolidating memories to poorer synchronization of brainwaves during sleep.
  • A fruitful study shows that oxidative stress drives sleep, and that this is regulated by a specific molecule that monitors the degree of oxidative stress.

Chronic insomnia linked to memory problems

  • A very large study shows that greater exposure to air pollution was linked to poorer cognitive performance in older adults, especially men and the less educated.

A large Chinese study involving 20,000 people has found that the longer people were exposed to air pollution, the worse their cognitive performance in verbal and math tests. The effect of air pollution on verbal tests became more pronounced with age, especially for men and the less educated.

  • A review of 34 studies confirms depression is linked to faster cognitive decline in older adults.

A review of 34 longitudinal studies, involving 71,244 older adults, has concluded that depression is associated with greater cognitive decline.

  • A large, long-running study has found an association between consumption of fruit & vegetables and subjectively assessed memory skills in older men.

A study following nearly 28,000 older men for 20 years has found that regular consumption of leafy greens, dark orange and red vegetables and berry fruits, and orange juice, was associated with a lower risk of memory loss.

  • A small study has used older adults’ inability to ignore irrelevant information to improve their memory for face-name pairs.

One important reason for the greater cognitive problems commonly experienced as we age, is our increasing difficulty in ignoring distracting and irrelevant information. But it may be that in some circumstances that propensity can be used to help memory.

  • Gist processing appears to play a strong role in false memories.
  • Older adults rely on gist memory more.
  • Older adults find it harder to recall specific sensory details that would help confirm whether a memory is true.

Do older adults forget as much as they think, or is it rather that they ‘misremember’?

  • A large study indicates that lifestyle changes, together with advice and support for managing vascular health, can help prevent cognitive decline even in carriers of the Alzheimer's gene.

A Finnish study involving over 1000 older adults suggests that a counselling program can prevent cognitive decline even among those with the Alzheimer’s gene.

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